**Cumulative Frequency**

This is the running total of the frequencies. On a graph, it can be represented
by a cumulative frequency polygon, where straight lines join up the points, or a
cumulative frequency curve.

*Example*:

Frequency: Cumulative frequency:

4
4

6
10 (4 +
6)

3
13 (4 +
6 + 3)

2
15 (4 +
6 + 3 + 2)

6
21 (4 +
6 + 3 + 2 + 6)

4
25 (4 +
6 + 3 + 2 + 6 + 4)

**The Median Value**

The median of a group of numbers is the number in the middle, when the numbers
are in order of magnitude. For example, if the set of numbers is 4, 1, 6, 2, 6,
7, 8, the median is 6:

1, 2, 4, **6**, 6, 7, 8 (6 is the middle value when
the numbers are in order)

If you have n numbers in a group, the median is the (n + 1)/2 th value. For
example, there are 7 numbers in the example above, so replace n by 7 and the
median is the (7 + 1)/2 th value = 4th value. The 4th value is 6.

When dealing with a cumulative frequency curve, n is the cumulative frequency
(25 in the above example). Therefore the median would be the 13th value. To find
this, on the cumulative frequency curve, find 13 on the y-axis (which should be
labelled cumulative frequency). The corresponding 'x' value is an estimation of
the median.

**Quartiles**

If we divide a cumulative frequency curve into quarters, the value at the lower
quarter is referred to as the lower quartile, the value at the middle gives the
median and the value at the upper quarter is the upper quartile.

A set of numbers may be as follows: 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 50. The mean of
these numbers is 19.625 . However, the extremes in this set (8 and 50) distort
this value. The interquartile range is a method of measuring the spread of the
middle 50% of the values and is useful since it ignore the extreme values.

The lower quartile is (n+1)/4 th value (n is the cumulative
frequency, i.e. 157 in this case) and the upper quartile is the 3(n+1)/4 the
value. The difference between these two is the interquartile range (IQR).

In the above example, the upper quartile is the 118.5th value and the lower
quartile is the 39.5th value. If we draw a cumulative frequency curve, we see
that the lower quartile, therefore, is about 17 and the upper quartile is about
37. Therefore the IQR is 20 (bear in mind that this is a rough sketch- if you
plot the values on graph paper you will get a more accurate value).